DONKEY

A steam engine with a spool upright and a side spool. In the early days this was a great aid when lines were pulled by hand.

SKIDDER

A skidder had two drums one for the main line and one for the back line. The skidders pulled the logs down a gulch to the landings. This was the reason why the roads were called skid roads. Skidders were usually on landings. There would be four or five pullers in a crew. Skidders were narrow.

YARDER

A yarder had three drums with two spools for a back line and a main line. One of the three drums was for the main line another for the back line, and the third f for the haul back. The haul back is a little line about four inch line. A yarder was larger and faster than a skidder. The main reason they were pre¬ferred over the skidder was their speed.

CHOKER

A loop of wire used for yarding. A choker was heavier than the pulling line. It had a hook in one end and probably an eye in the other. It circled the log, to be moved, and the choker tightened on the log as it was pulled and hence moved the log, where they wanted it to be. The chokers were generally made about forty feet long.

CHOKERMAN

The duty of the chokerman was to set the choker around the log. Unless he was told of a particular place to put the choke, he placed it according to his judgment.

YARDING

Yarding is placing a log in a particular spot.

BULL WHACKER

A bull whacker differed from a bull puncher in that a whacker used a bull whip while a puncher used a goad stick. Bull whackers were more common to Humboldt and Del Norte Counties than they were to Mendocino County.

BULL WHIP

This was a whip about ix feet long, with a series of straps (at least three or four) that would make "snapping" sound, when the whip was flicked. The handle was long and braided.

COOPER

A barrel maker.

PEELER

Peelers at work

A person who removes bark from a tree or log. It is used for both tan bark, and logs for lumber. When the log was cut into saw logs, the Barkers or peelers started to peel the logs, one barker or peeler, to a log. If the sap was "up" the log peeled easily, if it were not, the bark would have to be chipped off. The peeler bar was a steel bar from four to five feet in length and about an inch with a wide bit of the finest tool steel which was welded on to the bar, which was common steel. The bar bit had to be razor sharp in order to be efficient in this work. Many serious accidents occurred if a bar slipped.

JAY-HAWKING

When the bark is removed from a tan oak by ringing the tree as high as they can reach. The tree is left standing.

"FREE" WHARF

A privately owned wharf. One not owned by a Lumber Company or a special mill.

CITY

This refers to San Francisco.

WHARFAGE

A fee charged to individuals wishing to ship tan bark, cord wood, ties, etc. that belonged to him, and which he wished to sell in the City or which he had al¬ready sold.

CHOPPERS

Choppers chopped an undercut and "backcut" in the tree to fall it. The axe was used for the undercut. The saw was used to complete the operation, including the back or upper-cut.

UNDER CUT

The under cut was used to guide the tree to the spot or lay out on which it was to fall.

UPPER OR BACK CUT

This was sawed on the opposite side of the tree a little higher than the under cut. The upper cut came to within a few inches of the distance of the under cut. The distance between the two cuts depended upon the lay out upon which the tree was to follow. The skill of placing one of these huge Redwoods upon the lay-out without the tree being broken was important, because a broken tree made less lumber.